Thoth the Ancient Egyptian god in Ancient Egyptian mythology was known as the inventor of writing, and was also considered to have been the scribe of the underworld in Ancient Egypt. The recommend book by Patrick Boylan thoroughly examines this god.
The name of Thoth
The name of the god with whom this essay is concerned occurs with considerable frequency in the texts of the Old Kingdom. In the oldest texts, however, it is written mainly with the familiar symbol of the god an ibis on a perch, and only very rarely do we find in the most ancient texts the fully written form of the name.
The legend of Osiris
In the Osirian legend of Plutarch there are five chief dramatis personae Osiris, the prudent king who procured for Egypt the blessings of peace, well-being, and civilization, Isis his faithful spouse, Horus his son and heir, Typhon (Set) his unscrupulous and energetic, rival, and Hermes (Thoth) who appears chief as a friend and legal advocate of Horus. Plutarch speaks of a great law-suit which Horus had to sustain against Typhon in which the strong support of Hermes secured a victory for Horus. The aim of Typhon in the law-suit was to prove the illegitimacy of succession to the throne of Osiris. Through the brilliant support of Thoth the legitimacy of Horus was established, and his right succession to Osiris was confirmed. The victory of Horus over Set through the advocacy of Thoth Plutarch calls a victory for a reason over disorder and evil.
Plutarch’s description of this great law-suit through we can follow in its main features, is confused in great detail. It is obvious that Plutarch had not sufficient data to give a perfectly clear and consistent narrative of legal conflict between Horus and Set, or of the part played in it by Thoth. There are gathered together in his narrative strands from several ancient legends. With the help of the native Egyptian texts, however, we can complete the Plutarchian version of the Osirian legend and of Thoth’s place in it.
Thoth the Hermes of Egypt by Patrick Boylan
Check out this interview with Scott Creighton on his book the Great Pyramid Hoax